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vaccines-protect

Vaccination for children in Malaysia

Category: Tips Ubat

All children in Malaysia are recommended to receive vaccination based on the schedule set by the Ministry of Health Malaysia, up to 15 years old, for the safety of the population. The schedule is published as guideline for physicians, nurses and parents to follow.

 

Why shall children receive vaccination?

1. Vaccination had proven to reduce disease occurrence and death rates tremendously!

Before vaccinesre developed, thousands of people, including infants died from diseases such as diphtheria, measles, polio, whooping cough, influenza, rubella etc., in the U.S. per year. Have a look on how vaccination had improved the condition:

Disease Before vaccines were developed After residents received vaccination
Measle Nearly everyone in the U.S. got it. Hundreds of them died each year. Almost no measles occur in the U.S today.
Diphtheria More than 15,000 Americans died in 1921. Only 2 cases have been reported to CDC between 2004 to 2014.
Rubella 12.5 million Americans were infected at 1964-1965. It killed 2,000 babies, and caused 11,000 miscarriages. Only 15 cases have been reported to CDC since 2012.

Source: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

2. Vaccines protect children and others as well

When a person gets an infectious disease, the disease might spread from person to person, but not to a vaccinated child. A vaccinated child would not get infected and would not spread it to others. Besides protecting the vaccinated child, disease spreading is also contained, thus disease outbreaks could be prevented.

vaccines-protect

Source: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

 

Vaccination Schedule by the Ministry of Health Malaysia

immunisation_schedule

Source: MyHealth KKM

AGE VACCINATION
Newborn Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG)
1st dose: Hepatitis B (HepB)
1 month 2nd dose: Hepatitis B
2 months 1st dose:
– Diptheria, Tetanus, accellular Pertussis (DTaP)
– Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib)
– Inactivated Poliovirus (IPV)
3 months 2nd dose:
– DTaP
– Hib
– IPV
5 months 3rd dose:
– DTP
– Hib
– IPV
6 months 3rd dose: Hepatitis B
Measles (Sabah only)
10 months 1st Dose: Japanese Encephalitis (JE) (Sarawak only)
12 months 1st dose: Mumps, Measles, Rubella (MMR)
2nd dose: Japanese Encephalitis (Sarawak only)
18 months 4th dose:
– DTP
– Hib
– IPV
3rd dose: JE (Sarawak only)
4 years old 4th dose: JE (Sarawak only)
7 years old – BCG (option only if no scar found)
– Diptheria, Tetanus  (DT booster)
– 2nd dose of MMR
13 years old Human papillomavirus (HPV) with 3 doses within 6 months
(2nd dose 1 month after 1st dose, 3rd dose 6 months after 1st dose)
15 years old Tetanus (TT)

Source: Immunization Schedule from the Ministry of Health Malaysia

 

Optional Vaccination

Children might receive other optional vaccinations based on doctor’s advice.

  • > 6 weeks : Rotavirus
  • > 2 months : Pneumococcal
  • > 6 months : Influenza
  • > 10 months : Hepatitis A
  • > 12 months : Chicken pox

 

Type of vaccines

Vaccines are made using several different processes. They may contain live viruses that have been attenuated (weakened or altered so as not to cause illness); inactivated or killed organisms or viruses; inactivated toxins (for bacterial diseases where toxins generated by the bacteria, and not the bacteria themselves, cause illness); or merely segments of the pathogen (this includes both subunit and conjugate vaccines).

Vaccine type Vaccines of this type on U.S. Recommended Childhood (ages 0-6) Immunization Schedule
Live, attenuated

(weakened or altered so that it will not cause illness)

Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR combined vaccine)
Varicella (chickenpox)
Influenza (nasal spray)
RotavirusZoster (shingles)

Yellow fever

Inactivated/ Killed Polio (IPV)
Hepatitis ARabies
Toxoid

(Inactivated toxin: These are used for diseases which are caused by toxins produced by bacterias, but not bacterias themselves.)

Diphtheria, tetanus (part of DTaP combined immunization)
Subunit/ conjugate

(only segments of the pathogen)

Hepatitis B
Influenza (injection)
Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib)
Pertussis (part of DTaP combined immunization)
Pneumococcal
MeningococcalHuman papillomavirus (HPV)

Source: The College of Physicians of Philadelphia

 

how-vaccines-workjpg-1e47f187de608df2

Source: M. Klingensmith, 2014

 

Reference:

1. CDC: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/whatifstop.htm
2. Infomed: http://infomed.com.my/vaccination-in-malaysia
3. Myhealth KKM: http://www.myhealth.gov.my/en/immunisation-schedule/
4. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia: https://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/articles/different-types-vaccines